BATIK (BATIK BELANDA)
Batik Belanda or Dutch batik came into being and developed between 1840 and 1940, almost always in the form of a sarong and initially made only for the Dutch and Indo-Dutch Eurasians, and primarily in the coastal region (Pekalongan).
Most batik Belanda displays the combination of a bouquet of diverse flowers, or a flowering tree, with birds, above all the heron, the goose, and small birds, as well as butterflies. This sort of combination was also made with Chinese or Javanese ornamentation. The colors of batik Belanda were always bright, according to European taste. The designs were presented clearly, ranging from flowers and animals to airplanes, buildings, and human forms. There were designs with themes inspired by European tales, such as Red Riding Hood, Snow White, and Hansel and Gretel and even the goddess Hsi Wang Mu, a design influenced by Chinese culture, Wayang, a shadow puppet design, and Circus.
The environment, also, has had an impact on batik Belanda produced inland: the saga-brown of court batik continued to be the main color choice. The natural surroundings that encompassed the court ambiance imbued inland batik Belanda with a court-batik nuance, as well. Batik Belanda is more attractive in appearance, owing – as with coastal Dutch batik –to its high level of refinement, detail, and harmony. The wearers, who were initially limited to the Belanda environment, then expanded to include the Chinese and the Javanese aristocracy.
The first batik Belanda enterprise, owned by Carolina Josephine von Franquemont, was established in Surabaya in 1840 and later moved to Semarang. Franquemont was famous for the discovery of a fast green dye obtained from natural coloring matter. This color became known as franquemont green, hijau prankemon, and as a trademark of Franquemont's batik. Other entrepreneurs was Catherine Carolina van Oosterom, B. Fisfer, S.W. Ferns, Scharff van Dop, C.M. Meyer, J.A. de Witt, A.J.F. Jens and A. Wollweber, L. Metzelaar, Eliza van Zuylen, Carp, Feunem, Haighton, and Williams.